1 For discussions of the different worlds of teachers and many policymakers, see Neal Gross, Joseph B. Giaquinta, and Marilyn Bernstein, Implementing Organizational Innovations (New York: Basic Books, 1971), and Milbrey McLaughlin, "Learning from Experience: Lessons from Policy Implementation," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 9 ( Summer 1987): 172, 171-178.
2 Linda Darling-Hammond and Barnett Berry, The Evolution of Teacher Policy (Washington, DC: Center for the Study of the Teaching Profession, 1988); William R. Johnson, "Teachers and Teacher Training in the Twentieth Century," in Donald Warren, ed., American Teachers: Histories of a Profession at Work (New York: Macmillan, 1989), pp. 237-256; U.S. Department of Education, America 2000, p. 13.
3 "The Single Salary Schedule," School and Society 20 (July 5, 1924): 9, 9-13; "An Unjust Discrimination," The Journal of the National Education Association 12 (February 1923): 48; in 1921and in successive years the NEA resolved in favor of a single salary schedule - NEA Addresses and Proceedings, 1921, p. 27.
4 Susan Moore Johnson, "Merit Pay for Teachers: A Poor Prescription for Reform," Harvard Educational Review 54 (May 1984): 179, 175-185; William A. Firestone, Susan H. Fuhrman, and Michael W. Kirst, The Progress of Reform: An Appraisal of State Education Initiatives (New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Policy Research in Education, 1989).
5 Johnson, "Merit Pay."